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A to Z of Essential Oils





Search here to find out more about the extensive and therapeutic properties of Essential Oils. Here you will find lots of information about their common appliations, properties and fragrance!

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Pimpinella anisum

APPLICATIONS:  muscular aches and pains, rheumatism, bronchitis, coughs, colic, cramp, flatulence, indigestion, colds

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, galactagogue, stimulant, stomachic.

FRAGRANCE:    warm, spicy sweet characteristic scent.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Greece and Egypt, cultivated mainly in India and China.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  essential oil by steam distillation from the seeds

SAFETY:  Known to cause dermatitis in some, avoid in allergic and inflammatory skin conditions.  Large doses – narcotic; slows down circulation and can lead to cerebral disorders.

 

Ferula asa-foetida

APPLICATIONS:  Excellent for asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough, fatigue, nervous exhaustion, stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES:   Antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, hypotensive, stimulant.

FRAGRANCE:    Bitter acrid taste and strong, tenacious odour resembling garlic.  Beneath this there is a sweet, balsamic note.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Afghanistan, Iran and other regions of south west Asia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  oleoresin obtained by making incisions into the root and above ground parts of the plant. Milky juice left to leak out, and harden.  Essential oil is obtained from resin by steam distillation.  Absolute, resinoid and tincture are also produced.

SAFETY:  relatively non toxic and non irritant in its pure form.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Not recommended for home use.

PROPERTIES: Powerful antiseptic, germicide, carminative

FRAGRANCE:  herbaceous –spicy medicinal odour, like thyme

SOURCES:  Mainly Indian, Afghanistan, Egypt, West Indies, Seychelles

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the seed.

SAFETY:  Possible mucous membrane and dermal irritant.   Avoid during pregnancy.  Toxicity levels unknown

 

APPLICATIONS:  Circulation: Arthritis, fatigue, muscle cramp, rheumatism, stiffness etc / Respiratory: chills, congestion, bronchitis / Digestive: Cramp, flatulence, indigestion, nausea / Nervous system: depression, nervous exhaustion, neuralgia, tension, stress

Also, in small amounts massage oil for chest infections

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, analgesic, anti oxidant, antiseptic, carminative, muscle relaxant, rubefacient, stimulant, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Leaf oil similar fragrance to cloves.  Berry oil sweet, warm balsamic-spicy bodynote, fresh clean top note.

BLENDS WITH : ginger, geranium, lavender, opopanax, labdanum, ylang ylang, patchouli, neroli, oriental and spicy bases.

SOURCES:  Indigenous to West Indies / South America.  Cultivated extensively in Jamaica, Cuba, central America and distilled in Europe and America.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  essential oil by steam distillation from the leaves and the fruit. 

SAFETY:  Eugenol irritates mucous membranes, can cause dermal irritation.  Use with care in low dilutions only.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Circulation: cramp, fatigue, muscular aches and pains, poor circulation / Nervous System:  Anxiety, depression, nervous tension and stress related conditions. 

PROPERTIES: Antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, carminative, nervine, stimulant, stomachic.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet floral-musky odour, very tenacious.

BLENDS WITH:  rose, neroli, sandalwood, clary sage, cypress, patchouli, oriental and sophisticated bases.

SOURCES:  Indigenous to India, and widely cultivated in tropical countries including Indonesia, Africa, Egypt, China, Madagascar, West Indies

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation of seeds.  Absolute & concrete produced by solvent extraction. 

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant and non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Perfume.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, balsamic, sedative.

FRAGRANCE:    musty, faintly woody scent, quickly fading away.

BLENDS WITH:  lavandin, citronella, oakmoss, sassafras, cedarwood and other wood oils.

SOURCES:  mainly Haiti, and other tropical zones around the world i.e. Jamaica, South and Central America.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from broken up wood and branches.   

SAFETY:  Generally non irritant.

 

APPLICATIONS:  skin care, psoriasis, arthritis, gout, rheumatism, water rentention, bronchitis, coughs, anaemia, anorexia, flatulence, indigestion, fatigue, migraine, nervous tension, stress related disorders, colds

PROPERTIES: antispasmodic, carminative, depurative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, nervine, stimulant, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    rich herbaceous herby bodynote.  Seed oil has fresher spicy topnote.

BLENDS WITH:  patchouli, opopanax, costus, clary sage, oakmoss, vetiver and citrus oils.

SOURCES:  native to Europe and Siberia, cultivated mainly in Belgium, Hungary and Germany.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  essential oil produced by steam distillation from roots and rhizones and fruit / seed.  Absolute also produced on small scale from the roots.

SAFETY:  non toxic and non irritant.  Not to be used in pregnancy or by diabetics.

 

APPLICATIONS:  muscular aches and pains, rheumatism, bronchitis, coughs, colic, cramp, flatulence, indigestion, colds

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, carminative, expectorant, insect repellent, stimulant

FRAGRANCE:    warm, spicy, extremely sweet, liquorice-like scent

BLENDS WITH:    rose, lavender, orange, pine and other spice oils.

SOURCES:  Native to South East China, also Vietnam, India and Japan.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the fruits, fresh or partially dried.  Oil is produced from the leaves in small quantities.

SAFETY:  Does not appear to be a dermal irritant. Large doses it is a narcotic and slows down circulation; can lead to cerebral disorders.  Use in moderation only.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Excellent for asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough, fatigue, nervous exhaustion, stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES:   Antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, hypotensive, stimulant.

FRAGRANCE:    Bitter acrid taste and strong, tenacious odour resembling garlic.  Beneath this there is a sweet, balsamic note.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Afghanistan, Iran and other regions of south west Asia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  oleoresin obtained by making incisions into the root and above ground parts of the plant. Milky juice left to leak out, and harden.  Essential oil is obtained from resin by steam distillation.  Absolute, resinoid and tincture are also produced.

SAFETY:  relatively non toxic and non irritant in its pure form.

 

Melissa offinalis

APPLICATIONS:  Allergies, insect bites, insect repellent. Eczema, asthma, bronchitis, chromic coughs, colic, indigestion, nausea, menstrual problems, anxiety, depression, hypertension, insomnia, migraine, nervous tension, shock, vertigo

PROPERTIES: Antidepressant, antihistaminic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, carminative, cordial, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hypertensive, insect repellent, nervine, sedative, stomachic, sudorific, tonic, uterine, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    light, fresh lemony fragrance.

BLENDS WITH:    lavender, geranium, floral and citrus oils

SOURCES:  native to the Mediterranean, now common throughout Europe, Middle Asia, North America, North Africa, Siberia.  Cultivated in France, Spain, Germany and Russia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  essential oil by steam distillation from leaves and flowering tops.

SAFETY:  non toxic.  Possible sensitisation and dermal irritation; use in low dilutions only.

 

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES:  Insect bites, insect repellent, gout, muscular aches and pains, rheumatism, bronchitis, coughs, earache, sinusitis, dyspepsia, flatulence, nausea, cramps, scanty periods, colds, fever, ‘flu, infectious disease

FRAGRANCE:    Slightly coarse sweet hebacious odour with camphoraceous tinge.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Mainly produced in the Comoro Islands, but also processed in Madagascar

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY

 

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, astringent, depurative, diuretic, rebefacient, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Intense, sweet-woody, wintergreen-like scent.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to southern Canada and southeastern USA, mainly Pennsylvania.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:   Major constituent not toxic, but harmful in concentration.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Dermatitis, dull or congested skin, eczema, hair care, psoriasis, arthritis, cellulitis, muscular pain, obesity, oedema, poor circulation, rheumatism.

PROPERTIES: Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    woody-green balsamic scent to oil.  Rectified oil has smoke tar-like odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Other woody and balsamic oils.

SOURCES:  Native to northern hemisphere, throughout Eastern Europe, Russia, Germany, Sweden, Finland and the Baltic coast, Northern China and Japan.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

Peumus boldus

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, hepatic, sedative, tonic, urinary demulcent.

FRAGRANCE:    Powerful spicy-camphoraceous, disagreeable odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Chile; naturalized in the Mediterranean region. 

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Extremely toxic.

 

Spartium junceum

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Antihaemorrhagic, cardioactive, diuretic, cathartic, emmenagogue, narcotic, vasoconstrictor.

FRAGRANCE:    Intensely sweet, floral, hay-like scent with herbaceous undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    Rose, tuberose, cassie,mimosa, violet, vetiver and herbaceous type fragrances.

SOURCES:  native to southern Europe, especially southern Spain; cultivated in Spain, France, Italy and USA.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  absolute is obtained by solvent extraction.

SAFETY:  Sparteine, main constituent, is toxic.  In large doses causes vomiting, renal irritation, weakened heart, depressed nerve cells and lowers blood pressure.

 

Agothosma betulina

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, diuretic, insecticide.

FRAGRANCE:    penetrating minty-camphoraceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, now grows wild all over south Africa.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Should not be used during pregnancy.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Allergies, insect bites, insect repellent. Eczema, asthma, bronchitis, chromic coughs, colic, indigestion, nausea, menstrual problems, anxiety, depression, hypertension, insomnia, migraine, nervous tension, shock, vertigo

PROPERTIES: Antidepressant, antihistaminic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, carminative, cordial, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hypertensive, insect repellent, nervine, sedative, stomachic, sudorific, tonic, uterine, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    light, fresh lemony fragrance.

BLENDS WITH:    lavender, geranium, floral and citrus oils

SOURCES:  native to the Mediterranean, now common throughout Europe, Middle Asia, North America, North Africa, Siberia.  Cultivated in France, Spain, Germany and Russia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  essential oil by steam distillation from leaves and flowering tops.

SAFETY:  non toxic.  Possible sensitisation and dermal irritation; use in low dilutions only.

 

APPLICATIONS:   burns, cuts, haemorrhoids, wounds, asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, chronic coughs, sore throat, cystitis, genito-urinary infections, depression, nervous tension, stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic (genito urinary, pulmonary) antitussive, astringent, cicatriscant, diuretic, expectorant, purgative, regulatory, sedative (nerve) tonic, vulnerary

FRAGRANCE:    fresh sweet balsamic, almost fruity odour. 

BLENDS WITH:    pine, cedarwood, cypress, sandalwood, juniper, benzoin and other balsams.

SOURCES:  Native to North America, particularly Quebec, Nova Scotia and Maine.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Oleoresin collected by puncturing vesicles in the bark.  Essential oil produce by steam distillation from the Oleoresin.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.  Do not use in large doses.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Intestinal infections, piles, bronchitis, chills, colds, coughs, cystitis, stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES: Bactericidal, balsamic, disinfectant, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant.

FRAGRANCE:    crude balsam – hardens on exposure to air, mild, woody, slightly spicy odour.  Oil – mild, sweet, balsamic peppery odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Balsam – styrax, amyris, lavandin, cedarwood, lavender, oakmoss, woods and spices.  Oil – cananga, ylang ylang, vanilla, jasmine, violet and other florals.

SOURCES:  Native to north east and central South America.  Mainly produced in Brazil, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam and Columbia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil obtained by dry distillation from the crude balsam. 

SAFETY:  relatively non toxic, non irritant, possible sensitisation. Large doses cause vomiting and diarrhoea.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Dry, chapped skin, eczema, rashes, sores, sounds, low blood pressure, rheumatism, asthma, bronchtitus, coughs, colds, nervous tension, stress.

PROPERTIES: anti inflammatory, antiseptic, balsamic, expectorant, parasiticide, stimulant, promotes growth of epithelial cells.

FRAGRANCE:    rich, sweet, balsamic, vanilla like scent.

BLENDS WITH:    ylang ylang, patchouli, petitgrain, sandaleood, rose, spices, floral and oriental bases

SOURCES:  native to Central America, production mainly takes place in San Salvador.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  essential oil produced from the crude balsam by high vacuum dry distillation.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant;  however balsam is common contact allergen which may cause dermatitis.

 

APPLICATIONS:  dry, chapped and cracked skin, eczema, rashes, scabies, sores, wounds, bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, croup, laryngitis.

PROPERTIES: antitussive, antiseptic, balsamic, expectorant, stimulant

FRAGRANCE:    sweet-floral scent and peppery undertone

BLENDS WITH:    mimosa, ylang ylang, sandalwood, labdanum, neroli, patchouli, cedarwood and oriental spicy and floral bases

SOURCES:  Native to South America, mainly Venezuela, Columbia and Cuba. Cultivated in the West Indies.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil obtained from the crude balsam by either steam distillation or dry distillation.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, possible sensitisation

 

APPLICATIONS:  Insect bites, insect repellent, gout, muscular aches and pains, rheumatism, bronchitis, coughs, earache, sinusitis, dyspepsia, flatulence, nausea, cramps, scanty periods, colds, fever, ‘flu, infectious disease

PROPERTIES: Antidepressant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cephalic, digestive, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, galactagogue, nervine, prophylactic, restorative, stimulant of adrenal cortex, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    light fresh sweet-spicy scent and balsamic undertone

BLENDS WITH:    bergamot, clary sage, lime, opopanax, oakmoss, citronella, geranium, hyssop and other green notes.

SOURCES:  Native to tropical Asia and Africa.  Widely cultivated throughout Europe, Mediterranean, Pacific Islands, North and South America.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, possible sensitisation in some.  Avoid during pregnancy.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Dyspepsia, flatulence, loss of appetite, Scanty periods, colds, ‘flu, tonsillitis, viral infections.

PROPERTIES: Antirheumatic, antiseptic, bactericidal, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, fungicidal, hypotensive, sedative, stomachic

FRAGRANCE:    Powerful, spicy-medicinal odour

BLENDS WITH:    pine, cypress, juniper, clary sage, rosemary, olibanum, labdanum, lavender, citrus and spice oils.

SOURCES:  native to Mediterranean region; cultivated in France, spain, Italy, Morocco, Yugoslavia, China, Israel, Turkey and Russia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:   Relatively non toxic, and non irritant.  Can cause dermatitis in some.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Scalp stimulant, hair rinse for dandruff, greasy, lifeless hair and promoting growth, muscular and aritcular aches and pains, neuralgian, poor circulation, rheumatism, sprains, strains, colds, ‘flu, infectious diseases

PROPERTIES: Analgesic, Anticonvulsant, antineuraligic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, astringent, expectorant, stimulant, tonic for hair.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh-spicy top note and a sweet balsamic undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    Lavander, lavandin, rosemary, geranium, ylang ylang, citrust and spice oils.

SOURCES:  Native to West Indies, particular Dominica.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by water or steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Moderately toxic due to high eugenol content; also a mucous membrane irritant.  Use in moderation.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Cuts, chapped skin, inflameD and irritated conditions, arthritis, gout, poor circulation, rheumatism, asthma, bronchitis, chills, colic, coughs, laryngitis, ‘flu, Nervous tension and stress related complaints.

PROPERTIES: Anti inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antiseptic, astringent, carminative, cordial, deodorant, diuretic, expectorant, sedative, styptic, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    Intensely rich sweet-balsamic odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Sandalwood, rose, jasmine, copaiba balsam, frankincense, myrrh, cypress, juniper, lemon, coriander and other spice oils.

SOURCES:  Native to tropical Asia, mainly Sumatra, Java and Malaysia.  Also Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, China and Thailand. 

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Crude benzoin collected directly from the trees.  Commercial benzoin is usually sold dissolved in ethyl glycol or similar solvent.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, possible sensitisation.

 

APPLICATIONS:  skincare, acne, boils, cold sores, eczema, insect repellent, insect bites, oily complexion, psoriasis, scabies, spots, varicose ulcers, wounds, halitosis, mouth infections, sore throat, tonsillitis, flatulence, loss of appetite, cystitis, leucorrhoea, pruritis, thrust, colds, fever, ‘flu, infectious diseases, anxiety, depression, stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES: Analgesic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, carminative, digestive, diuretic, deodorant, febrifuge, laxative, parasticide, rubefacient, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh sweet-fruity, slightly spicy balsamic undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    lavender, neroli, jasmine, cypress, geranium, lemon, chamomile, juniper, coriander and violet.

SOURCES:  Native to tropical Asia, extensively cultivated in sothern Italy and also grown commercial on the Ivory Coast.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  cold expression of the peel of the nearly ripe fruit.

SAFETY:  Sensitisation and skin pigmentation may occur when exposed to direct sunlight.  Non toxic, non irritant.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Chilblains, anaemia, arthritis, muscular aches and pains, neuralgia, poor circulation, poor muscle tone, rheumatic pain, sprains, stiffness, catarrh, chills, colic, constipation, diarrhoea, flatulence, heartburn, loss of appetite, nausea, colds, flu, infections and viruses.

PROPERTIES: analgesic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, aperitif, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, laxative, rubefacient, nervous, circulatory and digestive stimulant, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:   Fresh Dry woody warm spicy scent.

BLENDS WITH:    Frankincense, sandalwood, lavender, rosemary, marjoram, spices and florals.

SOURCES:  Native to south west India; cultivated extensively in tropical countries. 

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the black peppercorns, dried and crushed.  An oleoresin in produced by solvent extraction, mainly for use as a flavour.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non sensitising, irritant in high concentration.  Use in moderation.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Cuts, bruises, insect repellent, debility, poor circulation, rheumatism, sprains, bronchitis, coughs, colds, fever, ‘flu and other infectious diseases, nervous exhaustion, stress related conditions, neuralgia.

PROPERTIES: Mildly analgesic, antidepressant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, carminative, rebefacient, stimulant of the adrenal cortex, tonic

FRAGRANCE:    Distinctive sassafras-like camphoraceous odour.

SOURCES:  Native to Borneo and Sumatra.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Borneol collected from the tree trunk in crude crystalline form.  The so-called oil of Borneo is extracted by steam distillation of the wood.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non sensitising, dermal irritant in concentration.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Perfume.

PROPERTIES:  Aromatic.

FRAGRANCE:    Concrete: beautiful arm, woody-sweet fragrance. Absolute: fresh, fruity-spicy scent with rich tenacious floral undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    clary sage, sandalwood, bergamot, violet, helichrysum, costus, mimosa and other florals.

SOURCES:  Native to western Australia

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Both concrete and absolute by enfluerage method or petroleum-ether extraction.  Essential oil also produced in small quantities by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Prohibitively expensive, therefore often adulterated.

SOURCES:  Native to Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, now grows wild all over south Africa.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Should not be used during pregnancy.

 

Calamintha officinalis

APPLICATIONS:  Chills, cold in the joints, muscular aches and pains, rheumatism, colic, flatulence, nervous dyspepsia, insominia, nervous tension, stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, nervine, sedative, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Herbaceous-woody pungent odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Europe and parts of Asia; cultivated for oil in the Mediterranean region, Yugoslavia, Poland and USA.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non irritant, non sensitising, possible toxic effects in concentration.

 

Acorus calamus var. angustatus

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anticonvulsant, antiseptic, bactericidal, carminative, diaphoretic, expectorant, hypotensive, insecticide, spasmolytic, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:   Stong, warm, woody-spicy frangrance.

BLENDS WITH:    Canaga, cinnamon, labdanum, olibanum, patchouli, cedarwood, amyris, spice and oriental bases.

SOURCES:  Native to India, mainly produced in India and Russia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Oral toxin.

 

Cinnamomum camphora

APPLICATIONS:  White camphor may be used with care for: acne, inflammation, oil conditions, spots, insect prevention, arthritis, muscular aches and pains, rheumatism, sprains, bronchitis, chills, coughs, colds, fever, ‘flu, infectious disease.

PROPERTIES:   Anti inflammatory, antiseptic, antiviral, bactericidal, counter irritant, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant, rubefacient, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:    Sharp, pungent, camphoraceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Japan and Taiwan, also China. Cultivated in India, Ceylon, Egypt, Madagascar, southern Europe and America.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil produced by steam distillation from wood.

SAFETY:  Brown / yellow camphor are toxic and carcinogenic and should not be used in therapy, internally or externally.  White camphor is relatively non toxic, non sensitising and non irritant.

 

Anthriscus cerefolium

APPLICATIONS:  NONE - Caution: this essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

PROPERTIES:   Aperitif, antiseptic, carminative, cicatrisant, depurative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, nervine, restorative, stimulant, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet herbaceous anisic odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Europe and western Asia; cultivated in southern Europe and America.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation. 

SAFETY:  Has toxic and irritant effects; possible carcinogenic effects; best avoided.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Cuts, scars, wounds, chills, coughs, colds.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, balsamic, cicatrisant.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet, woody-floral scent – very delicate but having great tenacity.

BLENDS WITH:    Rose, cassie, mimosa, cedarwood, rich woody and oriental bases.

SOURCES:  Found in Brazil, Paraguay, Chile and north Argentina.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Cuts, dandruff, dermatitis, eczema, spots.

PROPERTIES:  Analgesic, antimicrobial, antipruritic, antiseptic, distinfectant, parasiticide, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:    Woody, smoky, leatherlike odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Thyme, origanium,clove, cassia, tea tree, pine and medicinal type bases.

SOURCES:  Native to southern France, now common throughout Europe and North Africa. 

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Crude oil is obtained by destructive distillation.  Rectified oil is produced from crude oil by steam or vacuum distillation.  Oil can be produced from berries by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, possible sensitising problems.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Insect bites, fragrance, general skin care, anxiety, depression, nervous tension and stress related problems.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, hypotensive, nervine, sedative, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet, floral-balsamic tenacious scent.

BLENDS WITH:    calamus, birch tar, copaiba balsam, labdanum, neroli, oakmoss, jasmine, guaiacwood and oriental type bases.

SOURCES:  native to tropical Asia, Java, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Moluccas.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by water distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, possible sensitisation.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Bronchitis, coughs, laryngitis, dyspepsia, colic, flatulence, gastric spasm, nervous indigestion, poor appetite, colds.

PROPERTIES: Antihistaminic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, aperitif, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, expoectoran, galactagogue, larvicidal, stimulant, spasmodic, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:    Oil has harsh, spicy odour.  Distilled oil has strong warm, sweet-spicy odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Jasmine, cinnamon, cassia

SOURCES:  Native to Europe and western Asia; cultivated in Germany, Holland, Scandinavia and Russia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non sensitising, may cause dermal irritation in concentration.

 

APPLICATIONS:   Anorexia, colic, cramp, dyspepsia, flatulence, griping pains, halitotis, heartburn, indigestion, vomiting, mental fatigue, nervous strain.

PROPERTIES: antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, carminative, cephalic, digestive, diuretic, sialogogue, stimulant, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet-spicy warming fragrance with woody-balsamic undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    Rose, Olibanum, orange, bergamot, cinnamon, cloves, caraway, ylang ylang, labdanum, cedarwood, neroli and oriental bases.

SOURCES:  Native to tropical Asia, esp. southern India.  Cultivated in India, Sri Lanka, Laos, Guatemala and El Salvador.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:    Dermatitis, exzema, psoriasis, rashes, revitalising and toning, mature complexions, wrinkles, arthiritis, gout, oedema, rheumatism, anaemia, anorexia, colic, indigestion, liver congestion, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, glandular problems, PMT

PROPERTIES:  Anthelmintic, antiseptic, carminative, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, hepatic, stimulant, tonic, vasodilatory and smooth muscle relaxant.

FRAGRANCE:    Warm, dry, woody-earthy odour.

BLENDS WITH:    costus, cassie, mimosa, cedarwood, geranium, citrus and spice oils.

SOURCES:  Native to Europe, Asia and North Africa. 

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:   Bronchitis, coughs, dyspepsia, flatulence, nausea, ‘flu.

PROPERTIES: Astringent, antimicrobial, antiseptic, carminative, digestive, expectorant, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:   Spicy, aromatic, warm-woody odour.

BLENDS WITH:    nutmeg, pepper, pimento, sage, oakmoss, oriental and spicy bases.

SOURCES:  Native to the West Indies, found growing wild in Mexico, Colombia and Ecuador. 

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non irritant, non sensitising, relatively non toxic.

 

APPLICATIONS:  with care for dry, sensitive skin, perfume, depression, frigidity, nervous exhaustion and stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES:   antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, balsamic, insecticide.

FRAGRANCE:    Warm floral – spicy scent.

BLENDS WITH:    bergamot, costus, mimosa, frankincense, ylang ylang, orris and violet.

SOURCES:  Native of West Indies;  widely cultivated in tropical and semi tropical regions – mainly southern France, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Algeria and India.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Absolute by solvent extraction from flowers.

SAFETY:  No available data.

 

APPLICATIONS:  acne, dandruff, dermatitis, exzema, fungal infections, greasy skin, hair loss, skin eruptions, ulcers, arthritis, rheumatism, bronchitis, catarrh, congestion, coughs, cystitis, leucorrhoea, pruritis, nervous tension and stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, antiputrescent, antiseborrheic, aphrodisiac, astringent, diuretic, expectorant, fungicidal, mucolytic, sedative, stimulant, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Warm, camphoraceous, top note and sweet tenacious woody – balsamic undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    Rosewood, bergamot, boronia, cypress, calamus, cassie, costus, jasmine, juniper, neroli, mimosa, labdanum, olibanum, clary sage, vetiver, rosemary, ylang ylang, oriental and floral bases

SOURCES:  Native to the Atlas mountains of Algeria.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.  Avoid during pregnancy.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Acne, dandruff, eczema, greasy hair, insect repellent, oily skin, psoriasis, arthritis, rheumatism, bronchitis, catarrh, congestion, coughs, sinusitis, cystitis, leucorrhoea, nervous tension and stress related disorders.

PROPERTIES:  Antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, diuretic, expectorant, sedative, stimulant

FRAGRANCE:    Crude – smoky woody sweet tar like odour.  Rectified – Sweet, balsamic, pencil wood scent.

BLENDS WITH:    patchouli, spruce, vetiver, pine and leather type scents.

SOURCES:  native to south western USA, Mexico and Central America

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation. 

SAFETY:  Externally relatively non toxic, can cause acute local irritant and possible sensitisation.  Avoid during pregnancy.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Acne, dandruff, eczema, greasy hair, insect repellent, oily skin, psoriasis, arthritis, rheumatism, bronchitis, catarrh, congestion, coughs, sinusitis, cystitis, leucorrhoea, nervous tension and stress related disorders.

PROPERTIES: Abortifacient, antiseborrhoeic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, balsamic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, insecticide, sedative, stimulant.

FRAGRANCE:    Mild, sweet balsamic, ‘pencil wood’ scent.

BLENDS WITH:    Sandalwood, Rose, juniper, cypress, vetiver, patchouli and benzoin.

SOURCES:  Native to North America esp Rocky Mountains

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Externally relatively non toxic, can cause acute local irritant and possible sensitisation.  Avoid during pregnancy.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Arthritis, build up of toxins in the blood, gout, rheumatism, dyspepsia, flatulence, indigestion,  liver congestion, jaundice, amenorrhoea, glandular problems, increases milk flow, cystitis, neuralgia, sciatica.

PROPERTIES:   Anti-oxidative, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aperitif, depurative, digestive, diuretic, carminative, cholagogue, emmenagogue, galactagogue, hepatic, nervine, sedative, stimulant, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Spicy-warm, sweet, long-lasting odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Lavender, pine, opopanax, lovage, tea tree, oakmoss, coriander and other spices.

SOURCES: Native to southern Europe; cultivated as a domestic vegetable.  

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, possible sensitisation.  Avoid during pregnancy.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Acne, allergies, boils, burns, cuts, chilblains, dermatitis, earache, eczema, hair care, inflammations, insect bites, rashes, sensitive skin, teething pain, toothache, wounds, arthritis, inflamed joints, muscular pain, neuralgia, rheumatism, sprains, dyspepsia, colic, indigestion, nausea, dysmenorrhoea, menopausal problems, menorrhagia, headache, insomnia, nervous tension, migraine and stress related conditons.

PROPERTIES:   Analgesic, anti-allergenic, anti inflammatory, antiphlogistic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, carminative, cicatriscant, cholagogue, digestive, emmenagoge, febrifuge, fungicidal, hepatic, nerve sedative, stimulant of leucocyte production, stomachic, sudorific, vermiguge, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    Strong, sweetish warm-herbaceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Geranium, lavender, patchouli, rose, benzoin, neroli, bergamot, marjoram, lemon, ylang ylang, jasmine, clary sage and labdanum.

SOURCES:  native to Europe and north and west Asia;  cultivated extensively in Hungary and eastern Europe.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.  Absolute also produced in small quantitites.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, causes dermatitis in individuals.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Sensitive skin, colic, colitis, headache, insomnia, irritability, migraine, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, menopause, live and spleen congestion.

PROPERTIES:  Antispasmodic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, hepatic, sedative.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh herbaceous top note and a sweet rich balsamic undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    cypress, lavender, lavandin, vetiver, cedarwood, oakmoss, labdanum, olibanum and artemesia oils.

SOURCES:  Native to north west Africa and southern Spain. 

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic and non irritant.

 

APPLICATIONS:   Sensitive skin, colic, colitis, headache, insomnia, irritability, migraine, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, menopause, live and spleen congestion,

PROPERTIES: Analgesic, anti anaemic, antineuralgic, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, carminative, cholagogue, cicatrisant, digestive, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hepatic, hypnotic, nerve sedative, stomachic, sudorific, tonic, vermifuge, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    Warm sweet fruity-herbaceous scent.

BLENDS WITH:    bergamot, clary sage, oakmoss, jasmine, labdanum, neroli, rose, geranium and lavender.

SOURCES:  Native to southern and western Europe; cultivated in England, Belgium, Hungary, United States, Italy and France.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, can cause dermatitis in some.

 

APPLICATIONS:  NONE - Caution: this essential oils is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

PROPERTIES:   Aperitif, antiseptic, carminative, cicatrisant, depurative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, nervine, restorative, stimulant, stomachic, tonic

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet herbaceous anisic odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Europe and western Asia; cultivated in southern Europe and America.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation. 

SAFETY:  Has toxic and irritant effects; possible carinogenic effects; best avoided.

APPLICATIONS:  Leaf oil only: lice, scabies, tooth and gum care, warts, wasp stings, poor circulations, rheumatism, anorexia, colitis, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, intestinal infection sluggish digestion, spasm, childbirth, frigidity, leucorrhoea, metrorrhagia, scanty periods, chills, ‘flu, infectious diseases, debility, nervous exhaustion and stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES: Antithelmintic, antidiarrhoeal, antidote (to poison), antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiputrescent, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, digestive, emmenagogue, haemostatic, orexigenic, parasiticide, refrigerant, spasmolytic, stimulant, stomachic, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet, warm-spicy dry tenacious odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Olibanum, ylang ylang, orange, mandarin, benzoin, Peru balsam and oriental type mixtures.

SOURCES:  Native to Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Comoro Islands, South India, Burma and Indochina.  Cultivated in India, Jamaica and Africa.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by water or steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Leaf oil relatively non toxic although possibly irritant.  Bark oil is a dermal toxin, irritant and sensitizer.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Excessive perspiration, oily skin, insect repellent, colds, ‘flu’ minor infections, fatigue, headaches, migraine, neuralgia.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, deodorant, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, fungicidal, insecticide, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh, powerful lemony scent. 

BLENDS WITH:    geranium, lemon, bergamot, orange, cedarwood and pine. 

SOURCES:  Native to Sri Lanka; extensively cultivated on the southernmost tip of the country.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, may cause dermatitis in some.  Avoid during pregnancy.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Accumulation of fluids or toxins, arthritis, gout, muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, rheumatism, stiffness, anorexia, colic, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, flatulence, nausea, piles, spasm, colds, ‘flu, infections, measles, debility, migraine, neuralgia, nervous exhaustion.

PROPERTIES: Analgesic, aperitif, aphrodisiac, anti-oxidant, anti-rheumatic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, depurative, digestive, carminative, cytotoxic, fungicidal, larvicidal, lpolytic, revitalising, stimulant, stomachic.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet, woody-spicy slightly musky fragrance.

BLENDS WITH:    Clary sage, bergamot, jasmine, olibanum, neroli, petitgrain, citronella, sandalwood, cypress, pine, ginger, cinnamon and otherspice oils.

SOURCES:  Native to Europe and western Asia;  cultivated throughout the world, mainly produced in the USSR, Yugoslavia and Romania.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Generally non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.  Stupifying in large doses, use in moderation.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Perfume, Asthma, bronchitis, spasmodic cough, flatulence, indigestion, spasm, debility, nervous exhaustion and other stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES:  Antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, bactericidal, carminative, digestive, expectorant, febrifuge, hypotensive, stimulant, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Soft, woody-musty, extremely tenacious odour. 

BLENDS WITH:    Patchouli, Opopanax, ylang ylang, oriental and floral fragrances.

SOURCES:  native to northern India; cultivated in India and south west China.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Steam distillation followed by solvent extraction of distilled water from macerated dried roots.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, possible sensitisation in some.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Bronchitis, catarrh, congestion, chronic coughs, sinusitis, throat infections, flatulence, indigestion, piles, sluggish digestion, cystitis, leucorrhoea, urethritis.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, bactericidal, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant.

FRAGRANCE:    Warm woody-spicy slightly camphoraceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Cananga, galbanum, lavender, rosemary, black pepper, allspice and other spices.

SOURCES:  Native to Indonesia; cultivated throughout south east Africa.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Accumulation of fluids or toxins, poor circulation, colic, dyspepsia, flatulence, indigestion, spasm, debility, headaches, migraine, nervous exhaustion.

PROPERTIES: Anti-oxidant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, carminative, depurative, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, larvicidal, nervine, stimulant, tonic. 

FRAGRANCE:    Warm, soft, spicy-musky scent. 

BLENDS WITH:    Lavender, lavandin, rosemary, galbanum, rosewood, cardomon and oriental type fragrances.

SOURCES:  Native to upper Egypt; cultivated in Mediterranean region esp Spain, France and Morocco. 

EXTRACTION METHOD:   Essential oil by steam distillation. 

SAFETY:  Generally non toxic, non irritant and non sensitising.  However, do not expose treated skin to direct sunlight and avoid during pregnancy.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Haemorrhoids, oily and overhydrated skin, excessive perspiration, insect repellent, pyorrhoea, varicose veins, wounds, cellulitis, muscular cramp, oedema, poor circulations, rheumatism, asthma, bronchitis, spasmodic coughing, dysmenorrhoea, menopausal problems, menorrhagia, nervous tension and stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES: Antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, deodorant, diuretic, hepatic, styptic, sudorific, tonic, vasoconstrictive.

FRAGRANCE:    Smoky, sweet-balsamic tenacious odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Cedarwood, pine, lavender, mandarin, clary sage, lemon, cardomon, Moroccan chamomile, ambrette seed, labdanum, juniper, benzoin, bergamot, orange, marjoram and sandalwood.

SOURCES:  native to eastern Mediterranean; now grows wild in France, Italy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Spain, Portugal, North Africa, England and Balkan countries.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from needles and twigs.  Occasionally oil available from cones.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

Carphephorus odoratissimus

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, stimulant, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Herbaceous, new-mown hay scent

BLENDS WITH:    oriental type fragrances, such as oakmoss, labdanum lavandin, frankincense, clove, patchouli.

SOURCES:  Native to eastern USA.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  oleoresin by solvent extraction.

SAFETY:  Possibility of dermal irritation.

 

APPLICATIONS:  dyspepsia, lack of periods, colic, flatulence, indigestion.

PROPERTIES:  Antispasmodic, bactericidal, carminative, digestive, emmenagogue, galactagogue, hypotensive, stimulant, stomachic.

FRAGRANCE:    powerful sweet-spicy aroma.

BLENDS WITH:    Elemi, mind, spice, mind, nutmeg and citrus oils.

SOURCES:  Native to the Mediterranean and Black Sea; cultivated worldwide, especially Europe.

EXTRACTION METHOD:   Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising

 

Inula helenium

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Alterative, anthelmintic, anti inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitussive, astringent, bactericidal, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, fungicidal, hyperglycaemic, hypotensive, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Dry, soft, woody, honey like odour.

BLENDS WITH:    cananga, cinnamon, labdanum, lavender, mimosa, frankincense, orris, tuberose, violet, cedarwood, patchouli, sandalwood, cypress, bergamot.

SOURCES:  Native to Europe and Asia; cultivated in Europe.  Oil is mainly produced in Southern France.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY: Non toxic, non irritant, severe dermal sensitizer.

 

APPLICATIONS:  bronchitis, catarrhal conditions, unproductive coughs, aged skin, infected cuts / wounds, inflammations, wrinkles, nervous exhaustion and stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES: antiseptic, balsamic, cicatrisant, expectorant, fortifying, regulatory, stimulant, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Light, fresh balsamic spicy, lemon-like odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Cinnamon, sage, lavandin, lavender, rosemary, labdanum, frankincense, myrhh, and other spices.

SOURCES:  native to the Philippine Islands and the Moluccas.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, throat and mouth infections, headaches, nervous exhaustion, neuralgia, sciatica, cuts, sores, ulcers, colds, fevers, flu, infectious illnesses (measles), arthritis, muscular aches/pains, rheumatism, sports injuries, sprains.

PROPERTIES: Analgesic, antineuralgic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, balsamic, cicatrisant, decongestant, deodorant, depurative, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, parasiticide, prophylactic, rubefacient, stimulant, vermifuge, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    fresh, camphoraceous, spicy minty odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Tasmania and Australia, esp New South Wales and Victoria.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Debility, headaches, neuralgia, burns, blisters, cuts, herpes, insect bites, insect repellent, lice, skin infections, wounds, chickenpox, colds, epidemics, measles, muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, rheumatoid arthritis, sprains, cystitis, leucorrhoea, asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, sinusitis, throat infections.

PROPERTIES: Analgesic, antineuralgic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, balsamic, cicatrisant, decongestant, deodorant, depurative, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, parasiticide, prophylactic, rubefacient, stimulant, vermifuge, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    Harsh camphoraceous odour and woody sweet undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    lemon, cedarwood, pine, marjoram, lavender, rosemary and thyme.

SOURCES:  Native to Tasmania and Australia; cultivated in Spain, Portugal, Brazil, California, Russia and China.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Externally non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Colds, fevers, infectious skin conditions (chickenpox), Athlete’s foot, cuts, dandruff, herpes, insect repellent, scabs, sores, wounds, asthma, laryngitis, sore throat.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, antiviral, bactericidal, deodorant, expectorant, fungicidal, insecticide.

FRAGRANCE:    Strong, fresh, citronella like odour and sweet balsamic undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Australia; cultivated in Brazil and China

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, possible sensitisation.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Sweet Fennel only – bruises, dull oily mature complexions, pyorrhoea, amenorrhoea, insufficient milk in nursing mothers, menopausal problems, cullulitis, obesity, oedemia, rheumatism, anorexia, colic, constipation, dyspepsia, flatulence, hiccough, nausea, asthma, bronchitis.

PROPERTIES: Aperitif, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, galactagogue, laxative, orexigenic, stimulant, splenic, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:    Seet anise-like, slightly earthy-peppery scent.  Seed oil sharp, warm, camphoraceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Geranium, lavender, rose and sandalwood.

SOURCES:  Originates on island of Malta; now grown principally in France, Italy and Greece.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non irritant, non toxic, narcotic in large doses.  May cause sensitisation in some.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Colds, fever, flu, arthritis, muscular aches/pains, rheumatism, bronchitis, coughs, sinusitis.

PROPERTIES:  Analgesic, antiseptic, antitussive, deodorant, expectorant, rubefacient, stimulant, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Pleasing rich, sweet-balsamic odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Galbanum, labdanum, lavender, rosemary, lemon, pine and marjoram.

SOURCES:    Native to north European mountainous regions; cultivated mainly in Switzerland, Poland, Germany, France, Austria and Yugoslavia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Cystitis, dysmenorrhoea, leucorrhoea, metrorrhagic, blemishes, dry / mature complexions, scars, wounds, wrinkles, anxiety, nervous tension / stress related conditions, asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, laryngitis.

PROPERTIES: Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, carminative, cicatrisant, cytophylactic, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, sedative, tonic, uterine, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh, terpeney read top note and warm rich sweet-balsamic undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    Cinnamon, pepper, basil, camphor, bergamot, orange, neroli, mimosa, lavener, geranium, vetiver, pine, sandalwood and other spices.

SOURCES:  Native to the Red Sea region;  grows wild throughout  north east Africa.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Possibly digestive

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, bactericidal, carminative, diaphorectic, stimulant, stomachic.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh, spicy camphoraceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Chamomile maroc, sage, cinnamon, allspice, lavandin, pine needle, rosemary, patchouli, myrtle, opopanax, citrus oils.

SOURCES:  native to south east China; cultivated in China, Indonesia, Thailand and Japan

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  unavailable.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Nervous tension/ stress related complaints, abscesses, acne, boils, cuts, scar tissue, inflammations, tones, wrinkles, wounds, cramp, flatulence, indigestion, muscular aches / pains, poor circulation, rheumatism, asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, chronic cough.

PROPERTIES:   Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, balsamic, carminative, cicatrisant, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, hypotensive, restorative, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh green topnote and woody-dry balsamic undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    hyacinth and violet, narcissus, lavender, geranium oakmoss, opopanax, pine, fir, styrax, oriental bases.

SOURCES:  native to the Middle East and western Asia;  cultivated Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan, Lebanon.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by water or steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Perfume.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, aphrodisiac..

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet, rich, floral, jasmine like scent.

BLENDS WITH:    Ylang ylang, jasmine, tuberose, neroli, rose, spice, citrus oils.

SOURCES:  Native to the Far East, India and China.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Absolute by solvent extraction.

SAFETY:  Unavailable

 

APPLICATIONS:  Not used externally due to smell.  Capsules can be taken internally for respiratory / gastro intestinal infections etc.  Instructions should be followed.

PROPERTIES: Amoebicidal, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antitoxic, antitumour, antiviral, bactericidal, carminative, cholagogue, hypocholestrolemic, depurative, diaphorectic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, fungicidal, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, insecticidal, larvicidal, promotes leucocytosis, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Strong unpleasant odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Thought to have originated in south west Siberia, then spread to Europe and central Asia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Esential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic and non irritate, although may possibly irritant the stomach.  May also cause sensitising in some.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Nervous tension, neuralgia, stress related conditions, acne, bruises, broken capillaries, burns, congested skin, cuts, dermatitis, eczema, haemorrhoids, lice, oily complexion, mature skin, mosquito repellent, ringworm, ulcers, wounds, adrenocortical glands, menopausal problems, cellultis, engorgement of breasts, oedema, poor circulation.

PROPERTIES: Antidepressant, antihaemorrhaic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, cicatrisant, deodorant, diuretic, fungicidal, haemostatic, stimulant, styptic, tonic, vermifuge, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    Green rosy sweet minty scent.

BLENDS WITH:    Lavender, patchouli,clove, rose, sandaleood, jasmine, juniper, neroli, bergamot, citrus oils.

SOURCES:  Native to South Africa, cultivated in Russia, Egypt, Congo, Japan, Central America and Europe.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, generally non sensitising although possible contact dermatitis.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Arthritis, fatigue, muscular aches/pains, poor circulation, rheumatism, sprains, strains, catarrh, congestion, coughs, sinusitis, sore throat, diarrhoea, colic, cramp, flatulence, indigestion, loss of appetite, nausea, travel sickness, childs, colds, flu, fever, infectious disease, debility, nervous exhaustion.

PROPERTIES: Analgesic, anti-oxidant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitussive, aperitif, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, carminative, cephalic, diaphoretic, expedtorant, febrifuge, laxative, rubefacient, stimulant, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Warm, slightly green fresh woody spicy scent

BLENDS WITH:    Coriander, rose, lime, neroli, orange, sandalwood, vetiver, patchouli, citrus oils.

SOURCES:  Native southern Asia;  cultivated in tropics – Nigeria, West Indies, India, China, Jamaica, Japan.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant slightly phototoxic; may cause sensitisation.

 

APPLICATIONS:   Cellulitis, exercise preparation, muscle fatigue, obesity, stiffness, water retention, chills, colds, depression, headaches, nervous exhaustion, performance stress, acne, congested / oily skin, promotes hair growth, tones skin and tissues.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, antitoxic, astringent, bactericidal, diuretic, depurative, stimulant, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:   Fresh, sweet citrus aroma. 

BLENDS WITH:    Lavender, geranium, lemon, palmarosa, bergamot, neroli, rosemary, cardomon, spice oils.

SOURCES:  native to tropical Asia and West Indies;  cultivated in California, Florida, Brazil and Israel.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, slightly phototoxic, may cause sensitisation.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Arthritis, gout, rheumatoid arthiritis

PROPERTIES:  Anti-inflammatory, anti oxidant, antirheumatic, antiseptic, diaphoretic, diuretic, laxative.

FRAGRANCE:    Pleasant, tearose type fragrance, sometimes with smoky undertones.

BLENDS WITH:    Spice, geranium, anyris, neroli, sandalwood, oakmoss, costus and rose

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising

 

Armoracia rusticana

APPLICATIONS:  None.

PROPERTIES:  antibiotic, antiseptic, diuretic, carminative, expectorant, laxative, rubefacient, stimulant.

FRAGRANCE:    Sharp, potent odour with tear producing effect.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Eastern Europe, common throughout Russia, Europe and Scandinavia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by water and steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Oral toxin, dermal irritant, mucous membrane irritant.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Depression, debility, lethargy, nervous exhaustion, neuralgia, stress related conditions, abscess, acne, allergic conditions, boils, burns, cuts, dermatitis, eczema, inflammation, spots, wounds, bacterial infections, colds, flu, fever, muscular aches / pains, rheumatism, sprains, strained muscles, liver / spleen congestion, asthma, bronchitis, chromic coughs, whooping cough.

PROPERTIES: Anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antitussive, antiseptic, astringent, cholagogue, cicatrisant, diuretic, expectorant, fungicidal, hepatic, nervine.

FRAGRANCE:    Powerful, rich honeylike scent with delicate tealike undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    chamomile, clove, boronia, Peru balsam, labdanum, rose, lavender, clary sage, mimosa, oakmoss, geranium.

SOURCES:  Native to the Mediterranean region; cultivated mainly in Italy, Yugoslavia, Spain and France.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation. Absolute by solvent extraction.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising

 

HO LEAF ESSENTIAL OIL

The Ho Leaf comes from the leaf of the cinnamomum camphora tree.

 

APPLICATIONS:    Headaches, insomnia, nervous tension, neuralgia, stress related conditions, dermatitis, rashes, rough skin, ulcers, amenorrhoea, menstrual cramp, supports female oestrogens, promotes feminine characteristics, reduces sexual over activity, asthma, spasmodic cough, indigestion, nervous dyspepsia

PROPERTIES: Anodyne, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, ansispasmodic, astringent, bactericidal, carminative, diuretic, emollient, oestrogenic properties, hypnotic, nervine, sedative, soporific.

FRAGRANCE:    Rich, spicy sweet odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Pine, hyacinth, nutmeg, copaiba balsam, citrus and spice oils.

SOURCES:  Native to Europe and North America; cultivated worldwide.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.  Absolute produced by solvent extraction.

SAFETY:  Generally non toxic and non irritant.  May cause sensitisation in some individuals.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Has been described as ‘refreshing and invigorating to a tired mind’.... may also be used for stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES:  Antiseptic, balsamic, hypnotic, sedative, styptic.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet-green floral fragrance with soft floral undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    Narcissu, neroli, violet, jasmine, ylang ylang, galbanum, styrax.

SOURCES:  Native to Asia Minor; cultivated mainly in Holland and Southern France

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Concrete and absolute by solvent extraction.

SAFETY:   No safety data available.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Anxiety, fatigue, nervous tension, bruises, cuts, dermatitis, eczema, inflammation, wounds, colds, flu, low / high blood pressure, rheumatism, amenorrhoea, leucorrhoea, asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, cough, sore throat, tonsillitis, colic, indigestion.

PROPERTIES:  Astringent, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, bactericidal, carminative, cephalic, cicatrisant, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, hypertensive, nervine, sedative, sudorific, tonic, vermmifuge, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet camphoraeous top note and warm spicy herbaceous undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    citrus oils, geranium, clary sage, bay leaf, myrtle, rosemary and lavender.

SOURCES:  Native to Mediterranean region; grows wild throughout America, Russia and Europe; cultivated in Hungary and France.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non irritant, non sensitising, moderately toxic.  Use only in moderation and non when pregnant.

 

Gaultheria procumbens

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES:  Mild analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antitussive, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emmengagogue, galactagogue, stimulant.

FRAGRANCE:     Intense sweet woody, almost fruity, odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Oregano, mints, thyme, ylang ylang, narcissus, vanilla.

SOURCES:   Native to North America, esp north eastern region and Canada.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the leaf, which has been mascerated in warm water. 

SAFETY:   Toxic, irritant and sensitising.

 

Pilocarpus jaborandi

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, galactagogue, stimulant.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet herbaceous fruity odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Brazil; also found in Paraguay, Cuba and West Indies.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Oral toxin, skin irritant, abortifacient.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Dry / greasy / irritated / sensitive skin.  Muscular spasm, sprains, catarrh, coughs, hoarseness, laryngitis, dysmenorrhoea, frigidity, labour pains, uterine disorders, depression, nervous exhaustion, stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES:  Mild analgesic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, carminative, cicatrisant, expectorant, galactagogue, parturient, sedative, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:  Rich, warm, floral scent and tealike undertone. 

BLENDS WITH:    Citrus oils, clary sage, sandalwood, rose.

SOURCES:  Native to China, northern India and west Asia; cultivated in Mediterranean region, China, and India.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Concrete by solvent extraction;  absolute from concrete by alcohol separation.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, generally non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Anxiety, depression, nervous tension, stress related conditions, amenorrhoea, cystitis, dysmenorrhoea, leucorrhoea, colds, flu, infections, accumulation of toxins, arteriosclerosis, cellulitis, gout, obesity, rheumatism, acne, dermatitis, eczema, hair loss, haemorrhoids, oily complexions.

PROPERTIES: Antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, cicatrisant, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, nervine, parasiticide, rubefacient, sedative, stomachic, sudorific, tonic, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet fresh woody balsamic odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Vetiver, sandalwood, cedarwood, mastic, oakmoss, galbanum, elemi, cypress, clary sage, pine, lavender, lavandin, labdanum, fir needle, rosemary, benzoin, balsamic tolu, geranium and citrus oils.

SOURCES:  Native to the northern hemisphere – Scandinavia, Siberia, Canada, northern Europe and northern Asia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non sensitising, may be slightly irritating, generally non toxic.  Should not be used in pregnancy.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Mature skin, wrinkles, coughs, bronchitis, rhinitis, colds.

PROPERTIES: Antimicrobial, antiseptic, antitussive, astringent, balsamic, emmenagogue, expectorant, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:   Warm, sweet, dry herbaceous musky smell.

BLENDS WITH:    chamomile maroc, olibanum, patchouli, sandalwood, vetiver, cypress, bergamot, lavandin, lavender, opopanax, calamus, juniper, pine, clary sage, oakmoss.

SOURCES:  Native to the Mediterranean mountainous regions and Middle East.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Resin concrete and absolute by solvent extraction.  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Generally non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising – avoid during pregnancy.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Similar to true lavender, but more penetrating and rubefacient, and sharper scent.

PROPERTIES: Analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, carminative, cholagogue, choleretic, cicatrisant, cordial, cytophylactic, deodorant, diuretic, emmenagogue, hypotensive, insecticide, nervine, parasiticide, rubefacient, sedative, stimulant, sudorific, tonic, vermifuge, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh camphoraceous topnote, and a woody herbaceous undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    Clove, bay leaf, cinnamon, citronella, cypress, pine, clary sage, geranium, thyme, patchouli, rosemary and citrus oils.

SOURCES:  Natural lavandin occurs in the mountainous regions of southern France; mainly cultivated in France, but also Spain, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Argentina.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation; absolute and concrete by solvent extraction

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising

 

APPLICATIONS:  Abscesses, acne, allergies, athlete’s foot, boils, bruises, burns, dandruff, dermatitis, earache, eczema, inflammations, insect bites and stings, insect repellent, lice, psoriasis, ringworm, scabies, sores, spots, all skin types, sunburn, wounds, depression, headache, hypertension, insomnia, migraine, nervous tension, stress related conditions, PMT, sciatica, shock, vertigo, lumbago, muscular aches / pains, rheumatism, sprains, Flu, cystitis, dysmenorrhoea, leucorrhoea, asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, halitosis, laryngitis, throat infections, whooping cough, abdominal cramps, colic, dyspepsia, flatulence, nausea.

PROPERTIES: Analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, carminative, cholagogue, choleretic, cicatrisant, cordial, cytophylactic, deodorant, diuretic, emmenagogue, hypotensive, insecticide, nervine, parasiticide, rubefacient, sedative, stimulant, sudorific, tonic, vermifuge, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh herbaceous camphoraceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Rosemary, sage, lavandin, eucalyptus, rosewood, lavender, petitgrain, pine, cedarwood, oakmoss, patchouli and spice oils.

SOURCES:  Native to the mountainous regions of France and Spain, also found in North Africa; cultivated internationally.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by water or steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising

 

APPLICATIONS:  Colds, ‘flu, fever, infections, dyspepsia, asthma, throat infections, bronchitis, catarrh, arthritis, cellulitis, high blood pressure, nosebleeds, obesity, poor circulation, rheumatism, acne, anaemia, brittle nails, boils, chilblains, corns, cuts, greasy skin, herpes, insect bites, mouth ulcers, spots, varicose veins, warts.

PROPERTIES: Anti-anaemic, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, antisclerotic, antiscorbutic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, astringent, bactericidal, carminiative, cicatrisant, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, haemostatic, hypotensive, insecticidal, rubefacient, stimulates white corpuscles, tonic, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:   Light, fresh citrus scent

BLENDS WITH:    lavender, neroli, ylang ylang, rose, sandalwood, olibanum, chamomile, benzoin, fennel, geranium, eucalyptus, juniper, oakmoss, lavandin, elemi, labdanum.

SOURCES:  Native to Asia, now grows wild in Mediterranean.  Cultivated extensively worldwide in Italy, Siciliy, Cyprus, Guinea, Israel, South and North America.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by cold expression.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, may cause dermal irritation or sensitisation reactions in some.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Acne, athlete’s foot, excessive perspiration, insect repellent, open pores, pediculosis, scabies, tissue toner, fevers, infectious disease, headaches, nervous exhaustion, stress related conditions, colitis, indigestion, gastro-enteritis, muscular pain, poor circulation / muscle tone, slack tissue.

PROPERTIES:  Analgesic, antidepressant, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, antipyretic, antiseptic, astringent, bactericidal, carminative, deodorant, febrifuge, fungicidal, galactagogue, insecticidal, nervine, sedative, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh grassy citrus scent with earthy undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Asia – West Indian, native to Sri Lanka, cultivated mainly in West Indies and East Indies native to east India; mainly cultivated in western India.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, possible dermal irritant, possible sensitisation in some.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Colds, ‘flu, fever, infections, dyspepsia, asthma, throat infections, bronchitis, catarrh, arthritis, cellulitis, high blood pressure, nosebleeds, obesity, poor circulation, rheumatism, acne, anaemia, brittle nails, boils, chilblains, corns, cuts, greasy skin, herpes, insect bites, mouth ulcers, spots, varicose veins, warts.

PROPERTIES: Antirheumatic, antiscorbutic, antiseptic, antiviral, aperitif, bactericidal, febrifuge, restorative, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh, sharp, fruity citrus scent. 

BLENDS WITH:    Clary sage, rosemary, lavandin, lavender, citronella, neroli.

SOURCES:  Native to south Asia; cultivated mainly in south Florida, West Indies, Central America and Italy.

EXTRACTION METHOD: Essential oil by cold expression of peel, or steam distillation of the whole ripe, crushed fruit.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Acne, cuts, dermatitis, wounds, nervous tension and stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES:  Anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bactericidal, deodorant, gentle tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet-woody, floral scent.

BLENDS WITH:    Rose, sandalwood, cedarwood, rosewood, frankincense, floral and woody fragrances.

SOURCES:  Native to Central and South America; cultivated in the Far East.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising

 

APPLICATIONS:  Cramps, indigestion, liver pains, headaches, insomnia, migraine, nervous tension and stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES: Mild astringent, antispasmodic, bechic, carminative, cephalic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emoillient, nervine, sedative, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Herbaceous dry haylike odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Europe and the northern hemisphere.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Concrete and absolute by solvent extraction.

SAFETY:  No safety data available.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Acne, dermatitis, excessive perspiration, greasy skin, insect repellent, spots, flatulence, indigestion, epidemics, sanitation.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, deodorant, digestive, disinfectant, insecticidal, stimulant, stomachic

FRAGRANCE:    An intense, lemony fresh fruity odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to east Asia, especially China; cultivated in Taiwan and Japan.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the fruits.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, possible sensitisation in some.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, cystitis, anaemia, flatulence, indigestion, spasm, accumulation of toxins, congestion, gout, oedema, poor circulation, rheumatism, water retention.

PROPERTIES:  Antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, carminative, depurative, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, stimulant, stomachic.

FRAGRANCE:    Rich spicy-warm, root like odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Rose, galbanum, costus, opopanax, oakmoss, bay, lavandin and spice oils.

SOURCES:  Native to southern Europe and western Asia, naturalised in North America.  Cultivated in central and southern Europe.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the fresh roots and the herb.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, possible sensitisation.  Avoid during pregnancy.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Acne, congested and oily skin, scars, spots, stretch marks, toner, insomnia, nervous tension, restlessness, fluid retention, obesity, digestive problems, dyspepsia, hiccoughs, instinal problems.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, carminative, digestive, diuretic, laxative, sedative, stimulant, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    An intensely sweet, almost floral citrus scent.

BLENDS WITH:    other citrus oils, particularly neroli and spice oils such as nutmeg, cinnamon, and clove.  Tangerine oil is an orange mobile liquid with a fresh, sweet orangelike aroma.

SOURCES:  Native to southern China and the Far East.  The mandarin is produced mainly in Italy, Spain, Algeria, Cyrpus, Green the Middle East and Brazil.

EXTRACTION METHOD: Essential oil by cold expression from the outer peel.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.  Possibly phototoxic although it has not been demonstrated decisively.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Burns, cuts, eczema, greasy skin, inflammations, insect bites, rashes, wounds.  Infused oil is very valuable for its powerful skin healing properties.

PROPERTIES: Antihaemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, diaphoretic, cholagogue, cicatrisant, emmenagogue, febrifuge, fungicidal, styptic, tonic, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    Intensely sharp, herbaceous odour. 

BLENDS WITH:    Oakmoss, hyacinth and citrus oils.

SOURCES:  Native to southern Europe and Egypt; cultivated especially in northern Europe.  The absolute is only produced in France.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Absolute by solvent extraction from the flowers.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Chilblains, bruises, ticks, headache, hypertension, insomnia, migraine, nervous tension and stress related conditions, arthritis, lumbago, muscular aches / stiffness, rheumatism, sprains, strains, colds, asthma, bronchitis, coughs, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, leucorrhoea AMP, colic, constipation, dyspepsia, flatulence.

PROPERTIES: Analgesic, anaphrodisiac, anti-oxidant, antiseptic, ansispasmodic, antiviral, bactericidal, carminative, depahic, cordial, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, fungicidal, hypotensive, laxative, nervine, sedative, stomachic, tonic, vasodilatory, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    Warm, woody, spicy-camphoraceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:   Lavender, rosemary, bergamot, chamomile, cypress, cedarwood tea tree, eucalyptus.

SOURCES:  Native to the Mediterranean region, Egypt and North Africa.  Major oil producing countries are France, Tunisia, Mororcco, Egypt, Bulgarian, Hungary and Germany.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Absolute by solvent extraction from the flowers.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:   Boils, cuts, fleas, insect repellent, lice, ringworm, scabies, wounds, neuralgia, colds, arthritis, gout, muscular aches / rheumatism, sciatic, bronchitis, catarrh, whooping cough, cycstitis, leucorrhoea, urethritis.

PROPERTIES: Antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant.

FRAGRANCE:               Faint balsamic turpentine-like odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Lavender, mimosa, citrus  and floral oils.

SOURCES:  Native to the Mediterranean region and also found in North Africa.  Mostly produced on Greek Island of Chios, whilst some produced in Algeria, Morocco and the Canary Islands.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Resinoid by solvent extraction from the oleoresin.  Essential oil produced by steam distillation from the oleoresin or occasionally directly from the leaves and branches.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, possible sensitisation in some.

 

Melilotus officinalis

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, astringent, emollient, expectorant, digestive, insecticidal, sedative.

FRAGRANCE:    Rich sweet-herbaceous ‘new mown hay’ scent.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Europe and Asia Minor.  Flowers mainly cultivated in England, France, Germany and the USSR.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Concrete by solvent extraction from dry flowers.

SAFETY:  In some countries coumarin was banned from use in flavourings due to toxicity levels.  Some coumarins also known to be phototoxic.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Oily, sensitive, general skin care, anxiety, nervous tension, over-sensitivity, stress.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, astringent.

FRAGRANCE:    concrete – sweet-woody deep floral fragrance.  Absolute – slightly green woody-floral scent.

BLENDS WITH:    lavendin, lavender, ylang ylang, violet, styrax, citronella, Peru balsam, cassie, floral and spice oils.

SOURCES:  Native to Australia; naturalized in North and Central Africa. Mainly produced in southern France and Italy.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Concrete and absolute by solvent extraction from flowers and twig ends.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Fainting, headache, mental fatigue, migraine, nervous stress, vertigo, acne, dermatitis, ringworm, scabies, toothache, colds, flu, fevers, neuralgia, muscular paint, palpitations, asthma, bronchitis, halitosis, sinusitis, spasmodic cough, colic, cramp, dyspepsia, flatulence, nausea.

PROPERTIES:   Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiphlogistic, antipruritic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, astringent, carminative, cephalic, cholagogue, cordial, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, hepatic, nervine, stomachic, sudorific, vasoconstrictor, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:    Highly penetrating grassy minty camphoraceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Benzoin, rosemary, lavender, marjoram, lemon, eucalyptus and other mints.

SOURCES:  Originally a cultivated hybrid, known to have been propagated in England.  Naturalised throughout Europe and America; cultivated worldwide.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the flowering herb.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, possible sensitisation.

 

APPLICATIONS:  The properties resemble peppermint, but in a much more powerful way – much more suited to treating children.  Fatigue, headache, migraine, nervous strain, neurasthenia, stress, acne, dermatitis, congested skin, catarrhal conditions, sinusitis, colic, dyspepsia, flatulence, hepatbiliary disorders, nausea, vomiting, colds, fevers, flu.

PROPERTIES:  Local anaesthetic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cephalic, cholagogue, decongestant, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hepatic, nervine, stimulant, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Warm spicy-herbaceous minty odour.

BLENDS WITH:    lavender, lavandin, jasmine, eucalyptus, basil, rosemary, and in combination with peppermint.

SOURCES:  Native to the Mediterranean region, now common throughout Europe, western Asia and the Middle East.  Introduced to the USA.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the flowering tops.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

Artemisia vulgaris

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES:  Anthelmintic, antispasmodic, carminative, choleretic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, nervine, orexigenic, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:    Powerful camphoraceous, bitter-sweet, herbaceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Patchouli, oakmoss, rosemary, pine, clary sage, sage, cedarwood, lavandin.

SOURCES:  Believed to have originated in Europe and Western Asia; now found in temperate zones all over the world.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the leaves and flowering tops.

SAFETY:  Oral toxin, Abortifacient.

 

Brassica nigra

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Aperitif, antimicrobial, antiseptic, diuretic, emetic, febrifuge, rubefacient, stimulant.

FRAGRANCE:    Sharp penetrating acrid odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Common throughout eastern Europe, southern Siberia, Asia Minor and North Africa; naturalized in North and south America; cultivated for its seed and oil in England, Holland, Denmark, Germany and Italy.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam or water distillation from the black mustard seeds which have been macerated by warm water.

SAFETY:  Oral toxin, dermal toxin, mucous membrane irritant.  Considered one of the most toxic of all essential oils.

APPLICATIONS:  Athlete’s foot, chapped/cracked skin, eczema, mature complextions, ringworm, wounds, wrinkles, colds, arthritis, amenorrhoea, leucorrhoea, pruritis, thrush, asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, gum infections, gingivitis, mouth ulcers, sore throat, voice loss, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, flatulence, haemorrhoids, loss of appetite.

PROPERTIES:  Anticatarrhal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, astringent, balsamic, carminative, cicatrisant, emmenagogue, expectorant, fungicidal, revitalising, sedative, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, uterine, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    Resinoid – warm rich spicy balsamic odour.  Essential oil – warm, sweet-balsamic, slightly spicy medicinal odour.

BLENDS WITH:    frankincense, sandalwood, benzoin, oakmoss, cypress, juniper, mandarin, geranium, patchouli, thyme, mints, lavender, pine and spices.

SOURCES:  Native to North East Africa and south west Asia, especially in the Red Sea region.

EXTRACTION METHOD:   Resinoid and resin absolute by solvent extraction of the crude myrrh.  Essential oil by steam distillation of the crude myrrh.

SAFETY:  Non irritant, non sensitising, possibly toxic in high concentration.  Not to be used during pregnancy.

 

APPLICATIONS:   None – should not be used either externally or internally.

PROPERTIES: Aperitif, antimicrobial, antiseptic, diuretic, emetic, febrifuge, rubefacient, stimulant.

FRAGRANCE:    Sharp penetrating acrid odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Common throughout eastern Europe, southern Siberia, Asia Minor and North Africa; naturalized in North and south America; cultivated for its seed and oil in England, Holland, Denmark, Germany and Italy.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam or water distillation from the black mustard seeds which have been macerated by warm water.

SAFETY:  Oral toxin, dermal toxin, mucous membrane irritant.  Considered one of the most toxic of all essential oils.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Perfume.

PROPERTIES: Antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, emetic, narcotic, sedative.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet, green-herbaceous odour, with heavy floral undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    Clove bud, jasmine, neroli, ylang ylang, rose, mimosa, sandalwood, oriental and floral fragrances.

SOURCES:  Native to the Middle East or the eastern Mediterranean region, naturalised in southern France.  Cultivated extensively for its flowers.  Only Holland and the Grasse region of France produce the concrete and absolute.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Concrete and absolute by solvent extraction from the flowers.

SAFETY:  All members of this family, especially the bulbs, have a profound effect on the nervous system and can cause paralysis, and even death.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Acne, boils, burns, cuts, insect bites, oily skin, spots, ulcers, wounds, colds, fever, flu, muscular aches / pains, poor circulation, rheumatism, asthma, bronchitis, catarrhal conditions, coughs, sinusitis, sore throat, whooping cough, cystitis, urinary infection.

PROPERTIES: Analgesic, anthelmintic, anticatarrhal, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, balsamic, cicatrisant, diaphoretic, expectorant, regulator, stimulant, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet, fresh, camphoraceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Australia, New Caledonia and the French Pacific Islands.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from leaves and young twigs.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Arthritis, gout, muscular aches/pains, poor circulation, rheumatism, flatulence, indigestion, nausea, sluggish digestion, bacterial infection, frigidity, impotence, neuralgia, nervous fatigue.

PROPERTIES: Analgesic, anti-emetic, anti-oxidant, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, carminative, digestive, emmenagogue, gastric secretory stimulant, larvicidal, orexigenic, prostaglandin inhibitor, stimulant, tonic

FRAGRANCE:    Warm-spicy odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Oakmoss, lavandin, bay leaf, Peru balsam, orange, geranium, clary sage, rosemary, line, petitgrain, mandarin, coriander and other spice oils.

SOURCES:  Native to the Moluccas and nearby islands; cultivated in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the West Indies, esp. Granada.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried worm-eaten nutmeg seed, the dried orange-brown aril or husk (mace) and an oleoresin is produced in small quantities by solvent extraction from mace.

SAFETY:  Generally non toxic, non irritant and non sensitising.  However shows signs of toxicity in large doses.  Avoid during pregnancy.

 

APPLICATIONS:  As a fixative.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, demulcent, expectorant, fixative.

FRAGRANCE:    Absolute – extremely tenacious, earthy-mossy odour.  Absolute oil – dry earthy, barklike odour.  Concrete, resin, resinoids – heavy rich-earthy extremely tenacious odour.

BLENDS WITH:     high fixative value and blend with virtually all other oils.

SOURCES:  Oak indigenous to Europe and North America; lichen is collected all over central and southern Europe, especially France, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Greece and Morocco and Algeria.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Range of products – concrete and absolute by solvent extraction from the lichen; an absolute oil by vacuum distillation of the concrete; resins and resinoids by alcohol extraction of the raw material.

SAFETY:  Extensively compounded by cutting or adulteration with other lichen or synthetic perfume materials.

 

APPLICATIONS:  None, due to offensive smell.

PROPERTIES: Anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antirheumati, antiseptic, antisclerotic, antispasmodic, antiviral, bactericidal, carminative, depurative, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, fungicidal, hypocholesterolaemic, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:   Unpleasant, sulphuraceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native of western Asia and the Middle East.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the bulb.

SAFETY:  Specific data unavailable, probably similar to Garlic.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Possibly similar to Myrrh.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, balsamic, expectorant.

FRAGRANCE:    Liquid – sweet-balsamic spicy warm animal like odour.  Mass – warm, powdery, sweet-balsamic rooty odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Clary sage, coriander, labdanum, bergamot, myrrh, frankincense, vetiver, sandalwood, patchouli, mimosa, fir needle, neroli.

SOURCES:  Native (grows wild) to East Africa and eastern Ethiopia. 

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the crude oleogum resin.  Resinoid by solvent extraction from the crude oleogum resin.

SAFETY:  Frequently adulterated.

 

APPLICATIONS:   Nervous tension and stress related conditions, obesity, palpitations, water retention, colds, flu, dull and oily complexions, mouth ulcers, constipation, dyspepsia, spasm.

PROPERTIES: Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, bactericidal, carminative, choleretic, fungicidal, mild sedative, stomachic, tonic

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh dry, almost floral, odour with rich, sweet undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to the Far East, esp India and China, but well adapted to Mediterranean climate.  Grows abundantly in the USA, Israel and South America.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by cold expression from the outer peel of the almost ripe fruit.  Leaves are used for the production of petitgrain oil, and blossom for neroli oil.

SAFETY:  Phototoxic, otherwise general non toxic, non irritant and non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Scars, stretch marks, thread veins, mature and sensitive skin, tones complexion, wrinkles, anxiety, depression, nervous tension, PMT, shock, stress related conditions, palpitations, poor circulation, diarrhoea, colic, flatulence, spasm, nervous dyspepsia.

PROPERTIES:  Antidepressant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, carminative, cicatrisant, cordial, deodorant, digestive, fungicidal, mild hypnotic, nervous stimulant, cardiac, circulatory tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Absolute – fresh delicate yet rich warm sweet floral fragrance.  Oil – light sweet floral fragrance and terpeney topnote.

BLENDS WITH:    Absolute – jasmine, benzoin, myrrh and all citrus oils.  Oil – chamomile, coriander, geranium benzoin, clary sage, jasmine, lavender, rose, ylang ylang, lemon and other citrus oils.

SOURCES:  Native to the Far East, but well adapted to the Mediterranean climate. 

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Concrete & Absolute – solvent extraction from freshly picked flowers  Essential oil – steam distillation from freshly picked flowers.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising, non-phototoxic.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Nervous tension and stress related conditions, obesity, palpitations, water retention, colds, flu, dull and oily complexions, mouth ulcers, constipation, dyspepsia, spasm.

PROPERTIES: Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bactericidal, carminative, choleretic, digestive, fungicidal, hypotensive, nervous sedative, digestive and lymphatidc stimulant, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet fresh-fruity scent.

BLENDS WITH:    lavender, neroli, lemon, clary sage, myrrh and spice oils such as nutmeg, cinnamon and clove.

SOURCES:  Native to China; extensively cultivated especially in America and around the Mediterranean.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil – cold expression of fresh ripe (or almost ripe) outer peel.  Essential oil by steam distillation of the fresh ripe (or almost ripe) outer peel.

SAFETY:  Generally non toxic, non irritant and non sensitising.  Children should not ingest large amounts of orange peel.  Distilled orange oil is phototoxic.

 

Origanum vulgare

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES:  Analgesic, anthelmintic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, antiviral, bactericidal, carminative, choleretic, cytophylactic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, fungicidal, parasiticide, rubefacient, stimulant, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Warm, spicy herbaceous, camphoraceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Lavandin, oakmoss, pine, spike lavender, citronella, rosemary, cammpor and cedarwood.

SOURCES:  Native to Europe; cultivated all over the world, including the USA, India and South America.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried flowering herb.

SAFETY:  Dermal toxin, skin irritant, mucous membrane irritant. Avoid during pregnancy.

 

Thymus captitas

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES:   Analgesic, anthelmintic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, antiviral, bactericidal, carminative, choleretic, cytophylactic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, fungicidal, parasiticide, rubefacient, stimulant, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Strong tarlike herbaceous refreshing odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to the Middle East and Asia Minor; grows wild in Spain

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried flowering tops.

SAFETY:  Dermal toxin, skin irritant, mucous membrane irritant.

 

Iris pallida

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES:  Dried root, antidiarrhoeal, demulcent, expectorant.  Fresh root – diuretic, cathartic, emetic.

FRAGRANCE:    Oil – Woody violet like scent and a soft floral fruity undertone.  Absolute – delicate, sweet, floral woody odour.  Resin – deep woody sweet tobacco like scent.

BLENDS WITH:    Cedarwood, sandalwood, vetiver, cypress, mimosa, labdanum, bergamot, clary sage, rose, violet and other florals.

SOURCES:  Native to eastern Mediterranean region; also found in northern India and North Africa.  Grows wild in Italy.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil – by steam distillation from ‘rhizomes’ which have been peeled, washed, dried and pulverized.  (Rhizomes need to be stored for at least 3 years to develop their scent).  Absolute – by alkali washing in ethyl ether solutions to remove myristic acid.  Resin – alcohol extraction from peeled rhizomes.

SAFETY:  fresh root causes nausea and vomiting in large doses.  Oil and absolute are much adulterated or synthetic.

 

Metha pulegium

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES:  Antiseptic, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, carminative, digestive, emmenagogue, insect repellent, refrigerant, stimulant.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh, minty herbaceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:    geranium, rosemary, lavandin, sage and citronella.

SOURCES:  Native to Europe and parts of Asia; cultivated in southern Spain, Morocco, Tunisia, Portugal, Italy, Yugoslavia and Turkey.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the fresh or slightly dried herb.

SAFETY:  Oral toxin.  Abortifacient.  Ingestion of large doses has resulted in death.

 

Pinus mugo var. pumilio

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES:   Analgesic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antitussive, antiviral, balsamic, diuretic, expectorant, rubefacient.

FRAGRANCE:    Pleasant, balsamic sweet, spicy woody scent.

BLENDS WITH:    cedarwood, lavandin, rosemary, sage, cananga, labdanum, juniper and other coniferous oils.

SOURCES:  Native to the mountainous regions of central and southern Europe.  Oil mainly produced in Austria, Yugoslavia, Denmark and Italy.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the needles and twigs.

SAFETY:  Dermal irritant, common sensitising agent; otherwise non toxic.  Best avoided therapeutically.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Nervous exhaustion, stress related conditions, acne, dermatitis, minor skin infections, scars, sores, wrinkles, all types of treatment for face, hands, feet, neck, lips, anorexia, digestive atonia, intestinal infections.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, bactericidal, cicatrisant, digestive, febrifuge, hydrating, digestive and circulatory stimulant, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet, floral rosy geranium-like scent.

BLENDS WITH:    Cananga, geranium, oakmoss, rosewood, amyris, sandalwood, guaiacwood, cedarwood and floral oils.

SOURCES:  Native to India and Pakistan; now grown in Africa, Indonesia, Brazil and the Comoro Islands.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam or water distillation of the fresh or dried grass.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising

 

APPLICATIONS:  Amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, labour, cystitis, urinary infection, accumulation of toxins, arthritis, broken blood vessels, cellulitis, rheumatism, sciatica, colic, flatulence, indigestion, haemorrhoids.

PROPERTIES: Antimicrobial, antirheumatic, antiseptic, astringent, carminative, diuretic, depurative, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hypotensive, laxative, mild stimulant, stomachic, uterine tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Warm woody spicy herbaceous odour / heavy warm spicy sweet odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Rose, orange blossom cananga, tea tree, oakmoss, clary sage and spice oils.

SOURCES:  Native to the Mediterranean, esp. Greece.  Cultivated extensively mainly in California, Germany, France, Belgium Hungary and parts of Asia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the seed and the herb.

SAFETY:   Both oils are moderately toxic and irritant.  Use in moderation and avoid during pregnancy.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Acne, athlete’s foot, cracked and chapped skin, dandruff, dermatitis, eczema, fungal infections, hair care, impetigo, insect repellent, sores, oily hair / skin, open pores, wounds, wrinkles, frigidity, nervous exhaustion and stress related complains.

PROPERTIES:  Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, anti-emetic, antimicrobial, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antitoxic, antiviral, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, carminatie, cicatrisant, deodorant, digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, fungicidal, nervine, phrophylactic, nervous stimulant, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet rich herbaceous earthy odour.

BLENDS WITH:    clary sage, opopanax, myrrh, cassia, bergamot, neroli, rose, lavender, clove, geranium, loakmoss, cedarwood, sandalwood, vetiver, labdanum.

SOURCES:  Native to tropical Asia, esp, Indonesia and the Philippines.  Also, extensively cultivated for its oil in India, China, Malaysia and South America. 

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation of the dried leaves.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Chilblains, anaemia, arthritis, muscular aches and pains, neuralgia, poor circulation, poor muscle tone, rheumatic pain, sprains, stiffness, catarrh, chills, colic, constipation, diarrhoea, flatulence, heartburn, loss of appetite, nausea, colds, flu, infections and viruses.

PROPERTIES: analgesic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, aperitif, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, laxative, rubefacient, nervous, circulatory and digestive stimulant, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:   Fresh Dry woody warm spicy scent.

BLENDS WITH:    Frankincense, sandalwood, lavender, rosemary, marjoram, spices and florals.

SOURCES:  Native to south west India; cultivated extensively in tropical countries. 

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the black peppercorns, dried and crushed.  An oleoresin in produced by solvent extraction, mainly for use as a flavour.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non sensitising, irritant in high concentration.  Use in moderation.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Convalescence, insomnia, nervous exhaustion, stress related conditions, acne, excessive perspiration, greasy skin and hair, toning, dyspepsia, flatulence.

PROPERTIES: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, deodorant, digestive, nervine, digestive and nervous stimulant, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh-floral citrus scent and woody herbaceous undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    Rosemary, lavender, geranium, bergamot, bitter orange, orange blossom, labdanum, oakmoss, clary sage, jasmine, benzoin, palmarosa, clove and balsams.

SOURCES:  Native to southern China and north east India. 

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the leaves and twigs.  Orange ‘leaf and flower’ water absolute is also produced.

SAFETY:  non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising, non phototoxic.

 

APPLICATIONS:  None.

PROPERTIES:   Analgesic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antitussive, antiviral, balsamic, diuretic, expectorant, rubefacient.

FRAGRANCE:    Pleasant, balsamic sweet, spicy woody scent.

BLENDS WITH:    cedarwood, lavandin, rosemary, sage, cananga, labdanum, juniper and other coniferous oils.

SOURCES:  Native to the mountainous regions of central and southern Europe.  Oil mainly produced in Austria, Yugoslavia, Denmark and Italy.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the needles and twigs.

SAFETY:  Dermal irritant, common sensitising agent; otherwise non toxic.  Best avoided therapeutically.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Arthritis, gout, muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, rheumatism, cystitis, urinary infection, fatigue, nervous exhaustion and stress related conditions, neuralgia, colds, flu, cuts, lice, excessive perspiration, scabies, sores, asthma, bronchitis

PROPERTIES: Antimicrobial, antineuralgic, antirheumatic, antiscorbutic, pulmonary, urinary and hepatic antiseptic, antiviral, bactericidal, balsamic, cholagogue, cholerati, deodorant, diuretic, expectorant, hypertensive, insecticidal, restorative, rubefacient, adrenal cortex, circulatory, nervous stimulant, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:    Strong dry balsamic turpentine-like aroma.

BLENDS WITH:    Cedarwood, rosemary, tea tree, sage, lavender, juniper, lemon, niaouli, eucalyptus and marjoram

SOURCES:  Native to Eurasia; cultivated in the eastern USA, Europe, Russia, Baltic States and Scandinavia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by dry distillation of the needles.  Gum Turpentine is produced by steam distillation from the oleoresin.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant. Possible sensitisation – avoid in allergic skin conditions.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Broken capillaries, conjunctivitis, dry skin, eczema, herpes, mature and sensitive complexions, wrinkles, palpitations, poor circulation, asthma, coughs, hay fever, cholecystitis, liver congestions, nausea, irregular menstruation, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, uterine, disorders, depression, impotence, insomnia, frigidity, headache, nervous tension and stress related disorders.

PROPERTIES: Antidepressant, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, anti-tubercular agent, antiviral, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, choleretic, cicatrisant, depurative, emmenagogue, haemostatic, hepatic, laxative, regulator of appetite,nervous sedative, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Oil – deep sweet rosy floral.  Absolute – deep rich sweet, rosy spicy honeylike fragrance.

BLENDS WITH:    Jasmine, cassie, mimosa, orange blossom, eranium bergamot, lavender, clary sage, sandalwood, guaiacwood, patchouli, benzoin, chamomile, Peru balsam, clove and palmarosa.

SOURCES:  Originally believed to be from ancient Persia; now cultivated in Morocco, Tunisia, Italy, France, Yugoslavia and China.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil from water or steam distillation from the fresh petals.  Concrete and absolute by solvent extraction from the fresh petals.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Broken capillaries, conjunctivitis, dry skin, eczema, herpes, mature and sensitive complexions, wrinkles, palpitations, poor circulation, asthma, coughs, hay fever, cholecystitis, liver congestions, nausea, irregular menstruation, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, uterine, disorders, depression, impotence, insomnia, frigidity, headache, nervous tension and stress related disorders.

PROPERTIES: Antidepressant, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, anti-tubercular agent, antiviral, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, choleretic, cicatrisant, depurative, emmenagogue, haemostatic, hepatic, laxative, regulator of appetite,nervous sedative, stomachic, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:   Rich, deep, sweet floral slightly spicy scent.  Absolute – rich sweet spicy floral tenacious odour.

BLENDS WITH:    Blends with most oils, and is useful for ‘rounding off’ blends.

SOURCES:  Native to the Orient, now cultivated mainly in Bulgaria, Turkey and France.  Similar types are grown in China, India and Russia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by water or steam distillation from the fresh petals.  Concrete and absolute by solvent extraction from the fresh petals.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Acne, dermatitis, dandruff, eczema, greasy hair, insect repellent, promotes hair growth, regulates seborrhoea, scabies, stimulates scalp, lice, varicose veins, anteriosclerosis, fluid retention, gout, muscular pain, palpitations, poor circulation, rheumatism, asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough, colitis, dyspepsia, flatulence, depatic disorders, hypercholesterolaemia, jaundice, dysmenorrhoea, leucorrhoea, colds, flu, infections, debility, neuralgia, mental fatigue, nervous exhaustion and stress related disorders.

PROPERTIES:  analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, cephalic, cytophylactic, diaphorectic, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, fungicidal, hepatic, hypertensive, nervine, parasiticide, restorative, rubefacient, circulatory/adrenal cortex, hapatobiliary stimulant, stomachic, sudorific, tonic, vulnerary.

FRAGRANCE:    Strong, fresh, minty herbaceous scent and woody balsamic undertone.

BLENDS WITH:    Olibanum, lavender, lavender, lavandin, citronella, oregano, thyme, pine, basil, peppermint, labdanum, elemi, cedarwood, petitgrain, cinnamon and other spice oils.

SOURCES:  Native to the Mediterranean region; cultivated worldwide in California, Russia, Middle East, England, France, Spain, Portugal, Yugoslavia, Morocco, China.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation of the fresh flowering tops or the whole plant.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.  Avoid during pregnancy.  Not to be used by epileptics.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Acne, dermatitis, scars, wounds, wrinkles and general skin care, colds, coughs, fever, infections, stimulates the immune system, frigidity, headaches nausea, nervous tension and stress related conditions.

PROPERTIES: Mildly analgesic, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti microbial, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, cellular stimulant, cephalic, deodorant, Immune system stimulant, tissue regenerator, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet, woody floral fragrance with a spicy hint.

BLENDS WITH:    Citrus, woods and florals, but blends well with most oils.

SOURCES:  Native to the Amazon region, Brazil and Peru are the main producers.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation of the wood chippings.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

APPLICATIONS:  None.

PROPERTIES:  Antitoxic, antitussive, antiseptic, antispasmodic, diuretic, emmenagogue, insecticidal, nervine, rubefacient, stimulant, tonic, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:    Sharp herbaceous fruity acrid odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to the Mediterranean; grows wild in Spain, Morocco, Corsica, Sardinia and Algeria.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the fresh herb.

SAFETY:  Oral toxin. Skin and mucous membrane irritant.  Abortifacient.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Acne, boils, dandruff, hair loss, inflamed conditions, oily skin and hair, ophthalmia, ulcers, wrinkles, amenorrhoea, labour pain, dysmenorrhoea, leucorrhoea, high blood pressure, muscular aches and pains, depressin, frigidity, impotence, migraine, nervous tension, stress related disorders, asthma, throat infections, whooping cough, colic, cramp, dyspepsia, flatulence.

PROPERTIES: Anticonsulive, antidepressant, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, carminative, cicatrisant, deodorant, digestive, ennenagogue, hypotensive, nervine, regulator, sedative, stomachic, tonic, uterine.

FRAGRANCE:    Sweet nutty herbaceous scent

BLENDS WITH:    citrus oils, bergamot, frankincense, jasmine, labdanum, cedarwood, pine, geranium, sandalwood, cardomon, coriander, lavender, juniper.

SOURCES:  Native to southern Europe; cultivated worldwide, particularly in Mediterranean region, Russia and the USA.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the flowering tops and leaves.

SAFETY:  Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.  Avoid during pregnancy.  Do not use whilst drinking alcohol as it can exaggerate the effects.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Acne, cuts, dandruff, dermatitis, eczema, excessive sweating, hair loss, gingivitis, gum infections, sores, headaches, nervous exhaustion, stress related conditions, arthritis, debility, fluid retention, muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, rheumatism, jaundice, liver congestion, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, sterility, asthma, coughs, laryngitis, colds, fevers, flu.

PROPERTIES: Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, deodorant, depurative, digestive, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, hypotensive, nervine, regulatory, stimulant, stomachic, nerve and general tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh herbaceous campohoraceous, slightly pineline odour.

BLENDS WITH:    cedarwood, clary sage, juniper, citronella, eucalyptus, lavandin, lavender, rosemary, pinelike.

SOURCES:  Native to the mountains in Spain, also grows in south west France and Yugoslavia.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the leaves.

SAFETY:  Relatively non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.  Although should be used in moderation and avoided during pregnancy.

 

APPLICATIONS:  Acne, dry, cracked and chapped skin, aftershave, greasy skin, moisturiser, cystitis, depression, insomnia, nervous tensions, stress related complains, bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, laryngitis, sore throat, diarrhoea, nausea.

PROPERTIES: Antidepressant, antiphlogistic, urinary and pulmonary antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, carminative, cicatrisant, diuretic, expectorant, fungicidal, insecticidal, sedative, tonic.

FRAGRANCE:    Deep, soft, sweet-woody balsamic scent.

BLENDS WITH:    Rose, violet, tuberose, clove, lavender, black pepper, bergamot, rosewood, geranium, labdanum, oakmoss, benzoin, vetiver, patchouli, mimosa, cassie, costus, myrrh and jasmine.

SOURCES:  Native to tropical Asia, especially Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Taiwan.  

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by water or steam distillation from the roots and heartwood, powdered and dried.

SAFETY:   Non toxic, non irritant, non sensitising.

 

Santolina chamaecyparissus

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Antispasmodic, antitoxic, anthelmintic, insecticidal, stimulant, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:    Strong, acrid, herbaceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to Italy, now common throughout the Mediterranean region.

EXTRACTION METHOD:   Essential oil by steam distillation from the seeds.

SAFETY:  Oral toxin

 

Sassafras albidum

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES:  Antiviral, diaphoretic, diuretic, carminative, pediculicide, stimulant.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh, sweet spicy woody camphoraceous odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to eastern parts of the USA.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried root bark chips.

SAFETY:  Highly toxic, ingestion of even small amounts can cause death.  Carcinogen.  Irritant, Abortifacient.

 

Juniperus sabina

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES:  Powerful emmenagogue, rubefacient, stimulant.

FRAGRANCE:    Disagreeable bitter turpentive like odour.

BLENDS WITH:    

SOURCES:  Native to North America, middle and southern Europe.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the twigs and leaves.

SAFETY:  Oral toxin, Dermal irritant. Abortifacient.

 

Satureja hortensis

CAUTION:  This essential oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES:  anticatarrhal, antiputrescent, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, carminative, cicatrisant, emmenagogue, expectorant, fungicidal, stimulant, vermifuge.

FRAGRANCE:    Fresh, herbaceous spicy odour.

BLENDS WITH:    lavender, lavandin, pine needle, oakmoss, rosemary and citrus oils.

SOURCES:  Native to Europe.  Cultivated especially in Spain, France, Yugoslavia, and USA.

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential oil by steam distillation from the whole dried herb.

SAFETY:  Dermal toxin.  Dermal irritant.  Mucous membrane irritant.  Avoid during pregnancy.

 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison. 

Prunus dulcis va. amara

CAUTION:  This Essential Oil is highly toxic and not suitable for aromatherapy.

APPLICATIONS:  NONE

PROPERTIES: Anaesthetic, antispasmodic, narcotic, vermifuge

FRAGRANCE:    ‘Marzipan’ almond scent.

SOURCES:  Native to Western Asia and North Africa.  Also extensively cultivated throughout Mediterranean, Israel and California

EXTRACTION METHOD:  Essential Oil by steam distillation from the kernels. 

SAFETY:  Prussic acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid or cyanide is a well known poison.